Even your phone can explode!

We are living in an era where people want every work to be done using mobile phone itself. As this demand increased, demand to have more storage space and long lasting battery power also increased. This led to the advancement in mobile technology. Since, phones are getting sleeker day by day, batteries also needed to be lighter and smaller in size. Technologies used in batteries of old mobile phones are not environment friendly, so batteries with less toxic substances have become necessity. Lithium-ion batteries are one among them and widely used nowadays. Even though it is environment friendly, lighter and holds more energy, recently it started seeing breakdown because of its unexpected explosion.

Lithium-ion batteries contain two electrodes on opposite sides. One electrode known as cathode holds positively charged ions and filled with lithium. Other electrode is called as anode and holds negatively charge ions. These electrodes are submerged in a liquid or paste called an electrolyte. When a phone is being charged, positively charged ions flow from cathode to anode. When a battery is being used, the ions flow the other way. During this flow, it is highly recommended that the anode and cathode should never touch to prevent redirection of energy to electrolytes. Manufacturers insert separators in between to avoid this collision. But because of flaws in separators, electrodes come into contact and results in fire. This is said to be the reason for Samsung Galaxy Note 7 explosion.

Overcharging or quick charging also leads to battery failures. Dan Steingart, a materials scientist at Princeton University says battery is like a rubber band. Stretching a rubber band is similar to charging your phone whereas releasing a rubber band is similar to using your phone. If a rubber band is being stretched too much, there is a chance of it breaking. In the same way, if too much of lithium goes to anode, there is a chance of explosion. Since, we want battery to be charged quickly, we go for the chargers of higher volts though it is not compatible with the battery. This might lead to battery failure. So it is preferred to use chargers of same manufacturers as of battery makers. Steingart also explains the problem of quick charging by referring batteries to two egg crates. For a battery to function properly, lithium ions need to flow slowly between the spaces of two egg crates. If lithium ions move too quickly, then it will deposit itself on the outside of the egg crate and then onto itself. This results in battery short out if lithium ions move faster every time while charging.

To overcome the above problems, advanced battery chemistries such as lithium-sulphur and lithium-silicon are being worked on. Scientists are also developing an electrolyte by name “ionic liquids” which won’t explode easily. A company by name “Sakti3” came up with  solid-state battery where the liquid electrolyte in the battery is replaced by a solid substance. Company says it can store over 1,000 watt hours per litre, which is almost double of the traditional lithium-ion batteries available today with an energy density of up to 620 watts per hour per litre. This batteries are said to be cheaper, long lasting and more environment friendly than lithium-ion batteries. Solid-state batteries also overcome safety issues around the explosive nature of liquid batteries. Even though new technologies are evolving, lithium ion batteries are widely used nowadays and its upto us to follow some precautions while charging our phones until new technologies are accepted by current market.

Humans are not leaping bunnies

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” Hello! Mr. Bunny Rabbit,
Will you have some tea?
Oh! No thank you. Not for me.
I’d rather have a carrot.
But I won’t have tea. “

Who haven’t heard this rhyme? Rabbits are shy and sensitive creature loved by all. Though they rest in burrows, they have acute sense of hearing. Being herbivorous, they are human’s favourite pet. But the same pet is harmed in the name of animal testing. They are caged in laboratories and made to suffer in the name of science.

A test by name “Draize” is conducted on rabbits to test chemicals used in cosmetic products from more than 70 years. In the eye version of the test, chemicals are dripped onto their eyes without pain relief and observed for any eye irritation. If no eye damage is reported, then those chemicals will be washed out from their eye and retested with different chemicals. Rabbits with damaged eye will be killed with cruelty-free tag. This is not the end of cruel act, they are also subjected to skin test where chemicals are rubbed on shaved skin of rabbit’s back and monitored for any skin reaction.

Not only rabbits, many different species such as mice, rats, frogs, fish, pigs, hamsters, farm animals, birds, cats, dogs, monkeys and chimpanzees are used for the purpose of animal testing. It is estimated that more than 100 million animals are used each year across the world. An USDA report of 2010, gives information on number of animals used in research. Amongst those animals, most of them are killed after the completion of experiment and few die during the process of testing. This merciless killing is legal in more than 80 percent of the world.

Even though we are aware of 21st century technology which provides many alternatives for animal testing, still many countries are following this cruel act. Japanese scientists have developed an artificial human cornea that could replace draize eye test. Similarly, small discs of human skin cells grown in laboratories can be used instead of rabbit’s skin. This method has been accepted and validated by Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Since these alternative methods are time consuming and expensive, there are thousands of other ingredient which are safe to use in cosmetic products and does not require any testing. Many cruelty free organisations such as leapingbunny.org and crueltyfreeinternational.org have come up with an idea of providing animal friendly products to user.  So, its high time to put an end to such a misery. In 2013, European Union banned animal-tested products for the cosmetics industry and recently in India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare prohibited the use of draize tests using rabbits. Hope rest of the world follows the same and save the lives of animals.

Game of Secrets

There used to be days where people were fascinated by postcards. Receiving any post card from our loved ones meant a lot to us. It had nothing but few lines of text which described everything what sender wanted to convey. But now, we have moved into an era where postcards are replaced by instant messages. Though we were able to send and receive the messages in an instant, people demanded for something more. This resulted in the evolution of cute emojis and the rain of love poured to it. Since there are many instant messaging apps available in the app market, every app tried to look unique by providing few uncommon features in it. Facebook messenger being one among them, came up with extra special features which they have kept hidden. Though the reason behind hiding it is unsure, it makes the user cheerful when they come across such features luckily. They tried to hide few such features behind emojis and commands.

Did you know sending football emoji to your friend in Facebook Messenger, opens up football game for you? Yes, it does. Euro 2016 inspired Facebook to develop this game which can be played by average footballer. User just have to send football emoji to his mate and tap on it, this opens a new window where he can spend his time playing football. This provides hours of fun.

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Similarly, sending basket ball emoji to your friend opens up basket ball court where you and your friend can play basket ball in the chat window and the highest score will be logged in the same chat. These games are quite addictive.

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One can even play chess in the same chat window, but no chess emojis are provided for that. By simply typing “@fbchess play” , opens up a new chess board and the game is on. In this game, user can also access help text by typing “@fbchess help”.

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Other than games, One can also view loveable pictures of pets by typing “@dailycute” which helps in lifting one’s emotional state. This experiment made by Facebook messenger saw a great leap in market. Basketball game was played 1.2 billion times and exceeded the company expectation. This made them to launch 17 new ‘instant games’ in it. This instant games are available on newer version of iOS and android devices. This games can be found by clicking on game controller icon next to photos and stickers. So not only  ‘whats up?’, we can do many more with Facebook Messenger. This is why it is such a big hit.